An autonomous artificial heart, designed by the French company Carmat, was implemented for the first time on Wednesday in Paris. What he looks like and how does it work?The Health Minister Marisol Touraine (2nd left) with the surgeon transplant specialist Alain Carpentier, 21 December 2013 at the European hoîtal georges Pompidou in Paris. (KENZO TRIBOUILLARD / AFP) with AFP and Reuters Salome Legrand
is “a great pride for France” , as Marisol Touraine. French society Carmat, has developed a completely autonomous artificial heart. There was grafted, Wednesday, Dec. 18 to 75 year old man suffering from terminal respiratory failure. Saturday 21, the team of Professor Alain Carpentier, project designer at the Georges Pompidou European Hospital gave more details on this world first.
what looks like the artificial heart?
It is made of white plastic, hard as metal with, like the human heart, both ventricles. The prototype 900 grams, three times heavier than a human heart, is compatible with 70% of the thorax of men and 25% of those women.
How does it work?
It reproduces the physiology of the normal organ with its different rhythms and beats, using motor pumps. Loaded with electronics, it works with batteries stored in a belt and connected to a heart directed to the level of the ear wire. Thanks to a highly sophisticated onboard electronics system, artificial heart is able to accelerate and decelerate the needs of the organization and its activities.
To avoid the problem of blood clots which have faced competing models, biomaterials tested in heart valves, invented thirty years ago by Professor Carpentier and sold worldwide, are used. It is chemically treated to prevent rejection animal tissues. With these fabrics “patients do not require anticoagulation” by Carpentier Pr.
(Josée Blanc-Lapierre / France 2 / FranceTV info)
How much does it cost?
The price of this heart external battery is around 140 000 to 180 000 euros. A classic transplantation costs € 250 000 in France and almost one million dollars (730,000 euros) in the United States. According Camat, the company that produces it, the global market is estimated at € 16 billion.
What is its lifetime?
“For the moment we can not prejudge what style statement, but it is true that implantation of the artificial heart aims for what is called “destination therapy”, that is to say a final settlement “, said Pr Christian Latrémouille, cardiovascular surgeon who performed the operation at the European Georges Pompidou Hospital. Until now, all systems artificial assistance existed, were used until a transplant.
Camat obtained in September permission from the French authorities to test the heart in four patients in France in three institutions. The first phase of testing, which will last one month after implantation of the fourth patient, will focus on the safety of the prosthesis. During a second phase taking place over six months and to measure their effectiveness, provided Carmat expand its tests to 20 patients.
What is happening when the graft dies?
artificial heart he continues to operate in case of death of the graft? “This is an excellent question” concedes id=”:18r” Pr Christian Latrémouille interviewed by FranceTV info. The definition of death, yet understood as a circulatory arrest, that is to say the flow of blood in the veins and arteries, “can be changed by this technology” says the surgeon. For him, it could turn to the state of brain death, that is to say state of total and definitive lack of brain activity used especially in the donation organ.
“It is ethical and sociological questions of order that are currently still in a state of reflection” says practitioner recognizes that the machine can continue operating indefinitely it whatever the condition of the patient.
How has he been tested?
Thirty-five implantations were performed on animals for a year, according to Professor Alain Carpentier. This is mainly calves, chest favorable capacity according World , but the team did not elaborate on the topic.
In May 2013, the calf Zoe had been grafted under the eyes of Nouvel Observateur . “ It thus live ten days, more than Sophie, Aurora, Bernadette, his cattle sisters, who were also allowed surgeons to practice laying the artificial heart” , then tells the weekly.
How many people could benefit?
Developed with Professor Alain Carpentier, a specialist in cardiovascular surgery, bioprosthesis aims to address the shortage of hearts for transplant but also a solution to the cons-indications for transplantation. According to its creators, it could help 10,000 patients in France and 100,000 in Europe and the United States.
hexagon, 350 transplants are performed each year, limited by the number of donors. “This is something fabulous,” greets a man transplanted a human heart in 2004, interviewed by France 3. “I think unfortunately, this new process will not be open to everyone,” , a moderate on France Inter Macabiau Claire, president of the Federation of transplant heart and lungs, which particularly concerned about the financial costs.
What is this French company that invented it?
Founded in 2008 by the surgeon Alain Carpentier, among other world famous for inventing the heart valve Carpentier-Edwards, with Matra Defence (EADS) and Truffle Capital Fund, Camat is based in Velizy (Yvelines) . It is the result of combining the medical expertise of Professor Carpentier and technological EADS, a world leader in aerospace. Its main shareholders are Truffle Capital (33.58%), EADS (32.6%) and Professor Carpentier (14.33%).
Introduced in 2010 at the Paris Bourse on the Alternext market, the company now weighs just under 440 million market capitalization, and made two fundraising to finance the development of prosthesis . She also received financial assistance of EUR 33 million granted by BpiFrance or the most important assistance provided by the investment bank for SMEs.Read
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